Routers, switches and hubs

This page will talk about routers switches and hubs
It will be divided into three sections: routers, switches and hubs
first covered will be routers then switches then hubs


Routers
A router manages the traffic between two or more networks by handling the address information to direct the data between networks and by buffering the data to a compatible flow. Routers operate at layer 3 (the Network layer) of the OSI model. See table below.

Switches
Switches are devices that receive and process the distribution of data at a very basic level. Switches determine which computers in a network receive what information. They also usually have a connection to the internet and can evenly distribute the bandwidth between all the devices attached. Switches operate at layer 2 (the Data link layer) of the OSI model. See table below.

Hubs
Ethernet Hubs are points at which multiple devices are connected allowing them to act as one segment . It is the central point for information transfer in a local network. In most cases it is connected to a router which is connected to the internet this means the entire network can work on one connection. The bandwidth of this connection is shared between the computers. Hubs operate at layer 1 (the Physical layer) of the OSI model. See table below.

OSI
The Open Systems Interconnection Basic Reference Model is a model that describes communication systems and network protocol. It is divided into 7 layers the following only talks about the three relevant to routers, switches and hubs:

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OSI Model
Layer 1:
Layer 1 or the ‘physical layer’ deals with the physical components such as the actual connections, wires, hardware.
Layer 2:
Layer 2 or the ‘data link layer’ deals with the distribution of information between multiple network elements
Layer 3:
Layer 3 or the ‘network layer’ manages data traffic between networks
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